Advancements in battery technology have dramatically increased demand for improvements in liquid solid separation design, as the separator plays a critical role in ensuring the safety and electrochemical performance of the cells. Current separators, either in commercial usage or under investigation, have yet to meet the high stability and lifespan performance standards necessary to prevent deterioration in the efficiency and reliability of the battery technologies. Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to developing functionalized separators, ranging from designing a variety of new materials and modification methods, and increasingly, to optimizing advanced preparation processes. In order to understand how the mechanisms of vibrating separator performance are affected by different properties, we will first summarize recent research progress and then have in-depth discussions regarding the separator’s significant contribution to enhancing the safety and performance of the cell. We then provide our design strategy for future separators, which not only meets the requirements of different type of batteries, but also aims for multifunctionality. We hope such a perspective could provide new inspiration in the development of liquid solid separator research for future battery technologies.
The global demand for data storage and processing is increasing exponentially. To deal with this challenge, massive efforts have been devoted to the development of advanced memory and computing technologies. Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs) are currently at the forefront of this endeavor. In this Review, we focus on the mechanisms of the spontaneous structural relaxation – aging – of amorphous PCMs, which causes the well-known resistance drift issue that significantly reduces the device accuracy needed for phase-change memory and computing applications. We review the recent breakthroughs in uncovering the structural origin, achieved through state-of-the-art experiments and ab initio atomistic simulations. Emphasis will be placed on the evolving atomic-level details during the relaxation of the complex amorphous structure. We also highlight emerging strategies to control aging, inspired by the in-depth structural understanding, from both materials science and device engineering standpoints, that offer effective solutions to reduce the resistance drift. In addition, we discuss an important new paradigm – machine learning – and the potential power it brings in interrogating amorphous PCMs as well as other disordered alloy systems. Finally, we present an outlook to comment on future research opportunities in amorphous PCMs, as well as on their reduced aging tendency in other advanced applications such as non-volatile photonics.
Air filter paper with a high filtration efficiency that can remove small-size pollutant particles and toxic gases is vital for human health and the environment. We report a nanofiltration paper that is based on wood fiber filter paper with good mechanical properties and a three-dimensional network structure. The filter paper was prepared by impregnation with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF). The results showed that MWCNTs were present on the surfaces of the fibers and between the pores, which increased the specific surface area of the fibers and enhanced the effective interception of the particles. The optimum impregnation concentration of the MWCNT was 0.1%. Compared with the cellulose fibers (CFs), the average pore diameter of the 0.1% MWCNT–CF filter paper was reduced by 8.05%, the filtration efficiency was increased by 0.64%, and the physical properties were slightly enhanced. After impregnation with PF, the mechanical properties of the air filter paper were significantly enhanced. The PF on the fiber surfaces and at the junction of the fibers covered the MWCNTs. Based on the change in the filter paper properties after impregnation, the optimal filter paper strength index and filtration performance were observed at a solid PF content of 8.4%.